Forty-three years of peace among the great powers of Europe came to an end inwhen an act of political terrorism provoked two great alliance systems into mortal combat. Early YearsEuropeans were fighting heavily on two fronts before the U. This assurance was confirmed in the week following the assassination, before William, on July 6, set off upon his annual cruise to the North Capeoff Norway. Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife SophieAustrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, riding in an open carriage at Sarajevo shortly before their assassination, June 28,
Visit Website The assassination of Franz Ferdinand set off a rapidly escalating chain of events: Austria-Hungarylike many in countries around the world, blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the question of Serbian nationalism once and for all.
The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary then sent an ultimatum to Serbia, with such harsh terms as to make it almost impossible to accept.
World War I Begins Convinced that Austria-Hungary was readying for war, the Serbian government ordered the Serbian army to mobilize, and appealed to Russia for assistance. On August 4,German troops crossed the border into Belgium. In the first battle of World War I, the Germans assaulted the heavily fortified city of Liegeusing the most powerful weapons in their arsenal—enormous siege cannons—to capture the city by August Leaving death and destruction in their wake, including the shooting of civilians and the execution of a Belgian priest, whom they accused of inciting civilian resistance, the Germans advanced through Belgium towards France.
First Battle of the Marne In the First Battle of the Marnefought from September, French and British forces confronted the invading Germany army, which had by then penetrated deep into northeastern France, within 30 miles of Paris.
The Allied troops checked the German advance and mounted a successful counterattack, driving the Germans back to north of the Aisne River. The defeat meant the end of German plans for a quick victory in France.
Both sides dug into trenches, and the Western Front was the setting for a hellish war of attrition that would last more than three years. Particularly long and costly battles in this campaign were fought at Verdun February-December and the Battle of the Somme July-November German and French troops suffered close to a million casualties in the Battle of Verdun alone.
This increased hostility was directed toward the imperial regime of Czar Nicholas II and his unpopular German-born wife, Alexandra.
Russia reached an armistice with the Central Powers in early Decemberfreeing German troops to face the remaining Allies on the Western Front. America Enters World War I At the outbreak of fighting inthe United States remained on the sidelines of World War I, adopting the policy of neutrality favored by President Woodrow Wilson while continuing to engage in commerce and shipping with European countries on both sides of the conflict.
InGermany declared the waters surrounding the British Isles to be a war zone, and German U-boats sunk several commercial and passenger vessels, including some U.
Widespread protest over the sinking by U-boat of the British ocean liner Lusitania —traveling from New York to Liverpool, England with hundreds of American passengers onboard—in May helped turn the tide of American public opinion against Germany.
Germany sunk four more U.
Gallipoli Campaign With World War I having effectively settled into a stalemate in Europe, the Allies attempted to score a victory against the Ottoman Empire, which entered the conflict on the side of the Central Powers in late After a failed attack on the Dardanelles the strait linking the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean SeaAllied forces led by Britain launched a large-scale land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula in April The invasion also proved a dismal failure, and in January Allied forces were staged a full retreat from the shores of the peninsula, after sufferingcasualties.
The young Winston Churchill, then first lord of the British Admiralty, resigned his command after the failed Gallipoli campaign inaccepting a commission with an infantry battalion in France. British-led forces also combated the Ottoman Turks in Egypt and Mesopotamiawhile in northern Italy, Austrian and Italian troops faced off in a series of 12 battles along the Isonzo River, located at the border between the two nations.
British and French—and later, American—troops arrived in the region, and the Allies began to take back the Italian Front. The biggest naval engagement of World War I, the Battle of Jutland May left British naval superiority on the North Sea intact, and Germany would make no further attempts to break an Allied naval blockade for the remainder of the war.
Second Battle of the Marne With Germany able to build up its strength on the Western Front after the armistice with Russia, Allied troops struggled to hold off another German offensive until promised reinforcements from the United States were able to arrive. On July 15,German troops launched what would become the last German offensive of the war, attacking French forces joined by 85, American troops as well as some of the British Expeditionary Force in the Second Battle of the Marne.
The Allies successfully pushed back the German offensive, and launched their own counteroffensive just three days later. The Second Battle of the Marne turned the tide of war decisively towards the Allies, who were able to regain much of France and Belgium in the months that followed.
Toward Armistice By the fall ofthe Central Powers were unraveling on all fronts.
Despite the Turkish victory at Gallipoli, later defeats by invading forces and an Arab revolt had combined to destroy the Ottoman economy and devastate its land, and the Turks signed a treaty with the Allies in late October Austria-Hungary, dissolving from within due to growing nationalist movements among its diverse population, reached an armistice on November 4.
Facing dwindling resources on the battlefield, discontent on the homefront and the surrender of its allies, Germany was finally forced to seek an armistice on November 11,ending World War I.
Treaty of Versailles At the Paris Peace Conference inAllied leaders would state their desire to build a post-war world that would safeguard itself against future conflicts of such devastating scale.
As the years passed, hatred of the Versailles treaty and its authors settled into a smoldering resentment in Germany that would, two decades later, be counted among the causes of World War II.
Civilian casualties caused indirectly by the war numbered close to 10 million. The two nations most affected were Germany and France, each of which sent some 80 percent of their male populations between the ages of 15 and 49 into battle. The political disruption surrounding World War I also contributed to the fall of four venerable imperial dynasties—Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia and Turkey.
World War I brought about massive social upheaval, as millions of women entered the workforce to support men who went to war, and to replace those who never came back. The severe effects that chemical weapons such as mustard gas and phosgene had on soldiers and civilians during World War I galvanized public and military attitudes against their continued use.
The Geneva Convention agreements, signed inrestricted the use of chemical and biological agents in warfare, and remains in effect today.Until the Second World War, the highest Marine Corps general rank was that of Major General, with Thomas Holcomb becoming the first three-star Marine general and Alexander Vandegrift becoming the first four-star Marine general (both on active duty) in history.
World War I: World War I, international conflict that in –18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along with Russia, the U.S., the Middle East, and other regions.
It led to the fall of four great imperial dynasties and, in its destabilization of European society, laid the groundwork for World War II.
World War I was a major conflict fought in Europe and around the world between July 28, and November 11, Nations from across all non-polar continents were involved, although Russia, Britain, France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary dominated. Much of the war was characterized by stagnant.
For a general history of the American home front, see Robert H.
Zieger, America's Great War: World War I and the American Experience (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, ). For discussions of the impact of World War I on individual North Carolina counties, consult the .
The military history of Canada during World War I began on August 4, , when the United Kingdom entered the First World War (–) by declaring war on Germany.
In the final one hundred days of the war, the Canadian Corps marched successfully to Mons. However, in this period, the Canadian Corps suffered 46, casualties. Known as the "Great War," World War One was one of history's greatest tragedies. It eventually dragged most of Europe and the world into its bloody quagmire, inflicting more than four years of suffering, misery, maiming, and death on the belligerent ashio-midori.coms: 7.