A careful scrutiny of this chapter may well assist us understand to what extent this thesis is correct.
To investigate how the enzyme activity of Pectinase is affected by different temperatures when digesting the Pectin present in Apple Pulp.
Introduction The enzyme Pectinase has been used in the production of fruit juice for three decades; this is because it effectively digests the Pectin, found in the fibres of Apple Pulp.
This pectin is located mainly between the plant cells, however it can also be found within both layers of the thin cell walls. The primary layer contains the fibres of cellulose, which holds the Pectin, requiring the use of the enzyme Pectinase to burst the cell and release the Pectin.
In order to do this the apples must be crushed in a mill to extract as much juice as possible before the pulp can then be stirred for around 20 minutes to oxidise the enzyme inhibitors. These inhibitors are naturally occurring and will generally slow the reaction. The pulp can then be heated to its optimum temperature of 30oC when Pectinase is used, and the enzyme activity would be expected to be at its most efficient.
In the absence of Pectinase, a higher temperature would be required, usually of around 55oC.
The Pectinase and Apple Pulp can then be incubated, allowing the juice to flow freely, however the age and brand of the apple will affect this. Fair Test There are many variables which must be controlled if the experiment is to be fair and provide accurate results, these include: In my experiment I will use only the enzyme Pectinase, however I will also use distilled water, which will act as a control.
When large amounts of the enzyme is added in one experiment, compared to that used in another, the rate of reactions will be very different and will therefore become unreliable. This could mean Pectin still remains in the pulp, due to the lack of enzymes available to digest it, affecting the final results.
Some varieties of apples contain Pectin, which is more difficult for the Pectinase to break down and digest, so using a number of brands would negatively affect the results, as they are more likely to differ. Also, the older the apple pulp is, the easier it is to obtain juice, due to the Pectin becoming progressively soluble and softening the tissue.
Another factor, which could affect the results, is the place of storage of the apples and if they are tinned or not.
Each experiment must allow the temperature to remain constant for the same amount of time to ensure the enzyme activity can be recorded accurately.
If this condition was not controlled, the Pectinase may not be provided with enough time to digest all the Pectin and so there may be traces of the carbohydrate remaining. The beakers should be incubated for around minutes each to ensure the enzyme has broken down the insoluble Pectin and also degraded the soluble Pectin in the Pulp.
This encourages the flow of juice as breaking down the cellulose means the cell walls can no longer function and disintegrates.
An optimum temperature provides energy for the enzymes to function at their best due to them being specified for a particular function in certain conditions, and by using a range of temperatures, as I will do in my experiment, I will be able to prove which temperature is most suited for the Pectinase to digest the Pectin and which temperatures cause the enzyme to denature.
If a PH above this was used, the Pectinase may become denatured as it is unable to function in extreme conditions, however if the PH was lower than this, the rate of reaction is most affected; as the PH increases, remaining below the optimum, the rate of reaction does too.
A burette or measuring cylinder can be used, but only one should be chosen as they have different levels of accuracy.
The burette is much more accurate and clearer to read. In addition to this, in order to ensure a fair test, I must avoid contamination of the equipment and materials I will be using.
To do this I must keep the apparatus clean, using distilled water if I need to reuse the equipment, as this will limit the chance of transferring enzymes from one experiment to another for example. Risk Assessment Due to the high concentration of the enzyme I am using in the experiment, and because of the preparation of the juice itself, it should not be consumed.
Much smaller concentrations are used on the size apple pulp that I will be using in commercial Apple juice production, and so in my experiment the Apple juice produced will be poisonous.
I will also have to ensure care is taken when using the knife to chop the apple. The enzymes should also be handled carefully to avoid spillages, however if these occur, they should be promptly wiped away and distilled water used to wash the area thoroughly in order to avoid contamination.
Prediction From the experiment I have planned, I predict that the largest producer of Apple juice will be the Apple Pulp with the oxidised inhibitor and Pectinase at a temperature of 30oC.
I have predicted this as the optimum temperature of Pectinase is 30oC and so the enzyme will be working at its most efficient, producing a larger yield of juice.
The natural inhibitor in the Apple Pulp will be present in two of my three the experiments- containing only Pectinase and the other with only distilled water, which will slow down the rate of reaction as an inhibitor will block access to the enzymes active sites.Get help on 【 Effect Of Annealing Time And Temperature Biology Essay 】 on Graduateway Huge assortment of FREE essays & assignments The best writers!
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