Born at Pisa15 February, ; died 8 January, His father, Vincenzo Galilei, belonged to a noble family of straitened fortune, and had gained some distinction as a musician and mathematician. The boy at an early age manifested his aptitude for mathematical and mechanical pursuits, but his parentswishing to turn him aside from studies which promised no substantial return, destined him for the medical profession.

This is primarily a list of Greatest Mathematicians of the Past, but I use birth as an arbitrary cutoff, and two of the "Top " are still alive now. Click here for a longer List of including many more 20th-century mathematicians. Click for a discussion of certain omissions. Please send me e-mail if you believe there's a major flaw in my rankings or an error in any of the biographies.

Obviously the relative ranks of, say Fibonacci and Ramanujan, will never satisfy everyone since the reasons for their "greatness" are different. I'm sure I've overlooked great mathematicians who obviously belong on this list.

Please e-mail and tell me! Following are the top mathematicians in chronological birth-year order. By the way, the ranking assigned to a mathematician will appear if you place the cursor atop the name at the top of his mini-bio.

Earliest mathematicians Little is known of the earliest mathematics, but the famous Ishango Bone from Early Stone-Age Africa has tally marks suggesting arithmetic. The markings include six prime numbers 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 in order, though this is probably coincidence.

The advanced artifacts of Egypt's Old Kingdom and the Indus-Harrapa civilization imply strong mathematical skill, but the first written evidence of advanced arithmetic dates from Sumeria, where year old clay tablets show multiplication and division problems; the first abacus may be about this old.

By years ago, Mesopotamian tablets show tables of squares, cubes, reciprocals, and even logarithms and trig functions, using a primitive place-value system in base 60, not Babylonians were familiar with the Pythagorean Theorem, solutions to quadratic equations, even cubic equations though they didn't have a general solution for theseand eventually even developed methods to estimate terms for compound interest.

The Greeks borrowed from Babylonian mathematics, which was the most advanced of any before the Greeks; but there is no ancient Babylonian mathematician whose name is known. Also at least years ago, the Egyptian scribe Ahmes produced a famous manuscript now called the Rhind Papyrusitself a copy of a late Middle Kingdom text.

It showed simple algebra methods and included a table giving optimal expressions using Egyptian fractions. Today, Egyptian fractions lead to challenging number theory problems with no practical applications, but they may have had practical value for the Egyptians. The Pyramids demonstrate that Egyptians were adept at geometry, though little written evidence survives.

Babylon was much more advanced than Egypt at arithmetic and algebra; this was probably due, at least in part, to their place-value system.

But although their base system survives e. The Vedics understood relationships between geometry and arithmetic, developed astronomy, astrology, calendars, and used mathematical forms in some religious rituals. The earliest mathematician to whom definite teachings can be ascribed was Lagadha, who apparently lived about BC and used geometry and elementary trigonometry for his astronomy.

Apastambha did work summarized below; other early Vedic mathematicians solved quadratic and simultaneous equations. Other early cultures also developed some mathematics.A Adams, John Couch English astronomer and mathematician.

At the age of 24, Adams was the first person to predict the position of a planetary mass beyond ashio-midori.com Johann Gottfried Galle confirmed the existence of Neptune based on independent calculations done by Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier, the two became embroiled in a dispute over priority.

Galileo Galilei was born on 15 February near Pisa, the son of a musician. He began to study medicine at the University of Pisa but changed to philosophy and mathematics.

In , he became. Starry Messenger: Galileo Galilei [Peter Sis] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. If they had seen what we see, they would have judged as we judge. -- Galileo Galilei In every age there are courageous people who break with tradition to explore new ideas and challenge accepted truths.

Galileo Galilei was just such a man--a genius--and the first to turn the telescope to the. His father was the musician Vincenzo ashio-midori.como Galilei's mistress Marina Gamba ( – 21 August ?) bore him two daughters, (Maria Celeste (Virginia, –) and Livia (–), both of whom became nuns), and a son, Vincenzo (–), a lutenist.

May 31, · On this day in , Italian philosopher, astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilei arrives in Rometo face charges of heresy for advocating Copernican theory, which holds that the Earth. Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy on 15 February The eldest of six children born to Vincenzo Galilei and Giulia Ammannati, he was named after a relative called Galileo Bonaiuti who was a physician, university lecturer and politician.

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The Greatest Mathematicians