Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Yes Sorry, something has gone wrong. Describe specific practices that successful project managers apply in exercising their leadership and management roles overall. Provide three 3 specific examples to support the response.
Highlighting important issues in current practices, the article concludes with 15 principles of effective communication and an interactive list of recommended readings.
In good times or bad, there seems to be little real understanding of the relationships between managers, among employees, and interactions between the two.
When there Relationship of downsizing to organizational culture problems, everyone acknowledges that the cause often is a communication problem. I first define the subject, summarize its importance and describe basic internal communication processes, networks and channels.
The benefits of internal communication are then highlighted, followed by a history of the changing perceptions and practices of internal communication. I then discuss the roles of professional communicators and four important issues in current practice—social media, measurement, employee engagement and organizational identity.
The article concludes with 15 principles of effective communication, a list of references and some suggested readings. I want to thank internal communication experts Keith Burton, Gary Grates and Sean Williams, whose valuable insights and suggestions greatly enriched this article.
I use the terms internal communications and organizational communications to mean the same thing. Deetz described two ways of seeing and defining internal communications. In this view, the organization is a container in which communication occurs. The first approach has dominated, but the second perspective is gaining wider acceptance as more organizations recognize the crucial role of communication in dealing with complex issues and rapid changes in a turbulent global market.
Fundamentally, relationships grow out of communication, and the functioning and survival of organizations is based on effective relationships among individuals and groups. Internal communication also provides employees with important information about their jobs, organization, environment and each other.
Communication can help motivate, build trust, create shared identity and spur engagement; it provides a way for individuals to express emotions, share hopes and ambitions and celebrate and remember accomplishments. Communication is the basis for individuals and groups to make sense of their organization, what it is and what it means.
Communication Processes, Networks and Channels Internal communication is a complex and dynamic process, but early models focused on a one-way transmission of messages.
The Shannon-Weaver Modelconcerned with technology and information distribution, is a classic example. In this S-M-C-R model, an information source [S] encoded a message [M] and delivered it through a selected channel [C] to a designated receiver [R], who decoded it.
Later versions of the model added a feedback loop from receiver to sender. Nevertheless, the model suggested that all meaning is contained within the message, and the message would be understood if received.
It was a sender-focused model. He emphasized relationships between source and receiver and suggested that the more highly developed the communication knowledge and skills of sources and receivers, the more effectively the message would be encoded and decoded. Berlo also acknowledged the importance of the culture in which communication occurs, the attitudes of senders and receivers and strategic channel selection.
Today, the model is more complex due to new media and high-speed, multi-directional communications Burton, ; Williams, However, the core components live on in formal communications planning and implementation. Organizational leaders and communication specialists first develop strategies to achieve objectives, construct relevant messages and then transmit them through diverse channels to stimulate conversations with employees and members.
Employees communicate informally with others inside and outside the organization through high-speed communications, too. Communication Levels Internal communication occurs on multiple levels. Interpersonal or face-to-face F-T-F communication between individuals is a primary form of communication, and for years organizations have sought to develop the speaking, writing and presentation skills of leaders, managers and supervisors.
Group-level communications occur in teams, units and employee resource or interest groups ERGs. The focus on this level is information sharing, issue discussion, task coordination, problem solving and consensus building. Organizational-level communications focus on such matters as vision and mission, policies, new initiatives and organizational knowledge and performance.
These formal communications often follow a cascade approach where leaders at hierarchical levels communicate with their respective employees, though social media are changing communications at this level.
Communication Networks A network represents how communication flows in an organization. Networks can be formal and informal.
In a formal communication network, messages travel through official pathways e. Informal communications move along unofficial paths e. Informal communications are often interpersonal and horizontal, and employees believe they are more authentic than formal communications Burton, Employees and members use both networks to understand and interpret their organizations.
Communications also can be described as vertical, horizontal or diagonal. Vertical communication can be downward—flowing down the hierarchy of an organization—or upward, i.
Horizontal communication refers to communication among persons who have no hierarchical relationship, such as three supervisors from different functions. Diagonal or omni-directional communication occurs among employees at different levels and in different functions, e.
Evolving organizational structures and technologies create opportunities for new and conflicting communication flows Williams, Moreover, organizational downsizing involves the perception of uncertainty within the organizational context (e.g.
Hui and Lee, ). For example, organizational downsizing may be viewed as a source of anticipated harm, since survivors will be afraid of losing their jobs in the future . Abstract. The main aim of this chapter is to provide insight into how HRM activities (e.g. reward management, performance management, recruitment and selection) can affect organisational culture and how organisational culture, in turn, can affect the approaches to HRM activities, with a special emphasis on the operational perspective of HRM.
examining the relationship between organizational trust and employee job satisfaction, corporations will have knowledge necessary to assess their current culture and, if needed, develop a culture that allows for growth of its employees through high levels of trust. The Organizational Culture Inventory® (OCI) was used to assess employees’ perceptions of their current work culture and also of the organizational culture they believed would be the ideal organizational culture in which to work. Downsizing And Organizational Culture Thomas A. Hickok Abstract In this article Hickok argues that, ultimately, the most prominent effects of downsizing will be in relation to culture change, not in relation to saved costs or short-term productivity gains.
When we conceptualize downsizing within these broader frameworks, it becomes clear that we are speaking of downsizing both as a response to and as a catalyst of organizational culture change.
This article will later provide a formal definition of "organizational culture". A strong culture is an organizational culture with a consensus on the values that drive the company and with an intensity that is recognizable even to outsiders.
Strong cultures can be positive or negative. Organizational Downsizing: The Data Center Manager Over the past five years, data centers have grown in both size and complexity.
Managing various hardware platforms, multiple operating systems, numerous applications and a constant stream of information is challenging, even when organizations are .
THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL DOWNSIZING ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE consolidating, rightsizing or de-hiring etc.; but the available literature generally articulates two distinct types of organizational change arising from downsizing: convergence and reorientation (Freeman and Cameron, ; Tushman and Romanelli, ).