Overview[ edit ] HSUS formed after a schism surfaced in the American Humane Association over pound seizure, rodeo, and other policy issues. The incorporators of HSUS included four people—Larry Andrews, Marcia Glaser, Helen Jones, and Fred Myers—all of whom were active in the leadership of existing local and national groups, who would become its first four employees.
But it was a source of considerable problems too. Her employer offered no paid sick days, no paid family leave, and just one week of vacation per year.
These supports, which workers and employers in most countries have come to accept as standard and necessary for working families, include paid leave for new parents, flexible scheduling, breastfeeding and pumping accommodations, paid sick days that can be used for family care, and prohibitions on workplace discrimination based on family responsibilities.
One of the most common work-family supports, paid maternity leave, is practically universal: In nine of the countries, the status of paid leave for new mothers was unclear.
Just three countries definitively offer no legal guarantee of paid maternity leave: This lack of paid leave under law in America is at odds with a workforce revolution in which female participation in paid labor skyrocketed over the past century, especially among those with young children.
In the US more than 19 million families with children now have a mother as the primary or co-breadwinner, and 70 percent of children live in households in which all adults are in the labor force. Married women with children under age six were almost four times more likely to be in the paid workforce in as they were in The idealized notion is that private markets will foster such supports as employers compete for good workers.
In reality, however, huge swaths of the workforce have no such supports, and there are enormous disparities in access. For example, leaving decisions about whether to offer paid family leave—including for new parents—mostly up to employers has resulted in just 11 percent of civilian workers having such benefits, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Lower-income and part-time workers—mainly women—are far less likely to have paid family leave than other workers. Some new parents can use paid sick or vacation days, or other forms of paid leave after childbirth or adoption.
But about one-third of the workforce has no such benefits. The federal Family and Medical Leave Act FMLA enables workers with new children or family members with serious medical conditions to take unpaid job-protected leave, but only covers about half the workforce.
The law largely neglects workplace flexibility in scheduling, policies to support pumping breast milk or breastfeeding for workers at all levels, and protections against discrimination for workers with family responsibilities.
Based on interviews with 64 parents nationwide, this report examines work-family supports in the United States, and the disparate access that employees have to such supports. It compares paid leave and other work-family policies in the US with those of other countries and the standards firmly established in international law.
It also considers the health, financial, and career impacts of becoming a parent in America, where legally guaranteed paid leave is either limited or entirely absent and workplace attitudes are frequently hostile toward workers with family responsibilities.
Human Rights Watch heard consistent accounts of the harmful consequences of inadequate paid family and sick leave after childbirth or adoption, employer reticence to offer breastfeeding support or flexible schedules, and career fallout from becoming parents.
Parents with short and unpaid leaves described delaying immunizations and health care visits for babies; physical and mental health problems for parents; short periods or early cessation of breastfeeding and dismal conditions for pumping; financial hardship; debt; demotion; and denials of raises or promotions.
Same-sex partners of biological mothers were almost all denied even unpaid FMLA leave. Most interviewees said that work-family supports—even a few weeks of paid leave for themselves or their partners—would have significantly eased these difficulties.
Human Rights Watch also interviewed several parents who benefited from flexible work policies and paid family leave and were intensely loyal to their employers as a result.
They provided strikingly different accounts to those who lacked such supports. For example, many parents described how lack of paid leave and flexible work conditions jeopardized their health and that of their children. Her few days of sick pay were depleted and she could not afford more unpaid leave.
Hazel had used her two weeks of paid sick time right after birth, and was not entitled to more. But her employer threatened to fire her when she tried to use the small number of paid sick days to which she was entitled, and she never sought treatment.
Some families delayed or missed health visits and immunizations for their babies because their employers would not give them time off after maternity or paternity leaves, or because they lost health insurance during unpaid leave.
Dozens of women said they wanted to continue breastfeeding for the health of their babies, but workplace conditions for pumping were so difficult that they gave up nursing early.
Financial distress due to work leave with little or no pay was also a major issue for parents. She worked extra hours when pregnant to save money. But losing income during maternity leave led her to incur credit card debt, have trouble paying rent, and resort to a food bank.
But money was so tight she ended up borrowing from family and friends, missing car payments, getting food stamps, and going on welfare for a few months. For those who lost health insurance during leave and had to purchase their own, high premiums together with lost income devastated their finances.
This was the case for Isabella V. Another major theme in the interviews was workplace discrimination and career damage related to taking leave and having new family responsibilities. Many women said that merely revealing they were pregnant and requesting leave triggered tensions with employers, and sometimes demotions or pay cuts.
Many women, including Kimberley and Abigail, consequently quit their jobs and wound up in far less senior, lucrative, or rewarding positions.TOP.
Concurrence. FRANKFURTER, J., Concurring Opinion. MR. JUSTICE FRANKFURTER, concurring. According to my reading of Civilian Exclusion Order No. 34, it was an offense for Korematsu to be found in Military Area No.
1, the territory wherein he was previously living, except within the bounds of the established Assembly Center of that area. Income inequality in the United States has increased significantly since the s after several decades of stability, meaning the share of the nation's income received by higher income households has increased.
This trend is evident with income measured both before taxes (market income) as well as after taxes and transfer payments. Income inequality has fluctuated considerably since. People Family life There has never been a typical or single traditional family form in the United States.
In the early 21st century, the ideal family is a vehicle for self-fulfillment and emotional satisfaction. Primary responsibility for the order of society fell to the family, including supervising individuals, punishing minor offenses.
The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), based in Washington, D.C., is an American nonprofit organization founded by journalist Fred Myers and Helen Jones, Larry Andrews, and Marcia Glaser in , to address what they saw as animal-related cruelties of national scope, and to resolve animal welfare problems by applying strategies beyond the resources or abilities of local organizations.
Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space The United States is an urban and suburban nation whose numerous cities each tell a story about its historical and economic development. The Family in the United States: A Resource for Society Review of the Research Introduction The family generates important social virtues and many benefits for individuals and society.
The following is a review of the research that shows the married family’s positive influence on individual and societal well-being.