What Purposes Do Grades Serve?
Indirect Evidence Direct Evidence Let me clarify the attributes by elaborating on each in the context of traditional and authentic assessments: Selecting a Response to Performing a Task: On traditional assessments, students are typically given several choices e. In contrast, authentic assessments ask students to demonstrate understanding by performing a more complex task usually representative of more meaningful application.
It is not very often in life outside of school that we are asked to select from four alternatives to indicate our proficiency at something. Tests offer these contrived means of assessment to increase the number of times you can be asked to demonstrate proficiency in a short period of time.
More commonly in life, as in authentic assessments, we are asked to demonstrate proficiency by doing something. Well-designed traditional assessments i. Thus, as mentioned above, tests can serve as a nice complement to authentic assessments in a teacher's assessment portfolio.
Furthermore, we are often asked to recall or recognize facts and ideas and propositions in life, so tests are somewhat authentic in that sense. However, the demonstration of recall and recognition on tests is typically much less revealing about what we really know and can do than when we are asked to construct a product or performance out of facts, ideas and propositions.
Authentic assessments often ask students to analyze, synthesize and apply what they have learned in a substantial manner, and students create new meaning in the process as well.
When completing a traditional assessment, what a student can and will demonstrate has been carefully structured by the person s who developed the test. A student's attention will understandably be focused on and limited to what is on the test. In contrast, authentic assessments allow more student choice and construction in determining what is presented as evidence of proficiency.
Even when students cannot choose their own topics or formats, there are usually multiple acceptable routes towards constructing a product or performance. Obviously, assessments more carefully controlled by the teachers offer advantages and disadvantages.
Similarly, more student-structured tasks have strengths and weaknesses that must be considered when choosing and designing an assessment.
Indirect Evidence to Direct Evidence: Even if a multiple-choice question asks a student to analyze or apply facts to a new situation rather than just recall the facts, and the student selects the correct answer, what do you now know about that student?
Did that student get lucky and pick the right answer? What thinking led the student to pick that answer? We really do not know. At best, we can make some inferences about what that student might know and might be able to do with that knowledge.
The evidence is very indirect, particularly for claims of meaningful application in complex, real-world situations. Authentic assessments, on the other hand, offer more direct evidence of application and construction of knowledge.
As in the golf example above, putting a golf student on the golf course to play provides much more direct evidence of proficiency than giving the student a written test. Can a student effectively critique the arguments someone else has presented an important skill often required in the real world?
Asking a student to write a critique should provide more direct evidence of that skill than asking the student a series of multiple-choice, analytical questions about a passage, although both assessments may be useful.
Teaching to the Test These two different approaches to assessment also offer different advice about teaching to the test. Under the TA model, teachers have been discouraged from teaching to the test. That is because a test usually assesses a sample of students' knowledge and understanding and assumes that students' performance on the sample is representative of their knowledge of all the relevant material.
If teachers focus primarily on the sample to be tested during instruction, then good performance on that sample does not necessarily reflect knowledge of all the material.
So, teachers hide the test so that the sample is not known beforehand, and teachers are admonished not to teach to the test. With AA, teachers are encouraged to teach to the test. Students need to learn how to perform well on meaningful tasks.
To aid students in that process, it is helpful to show them models of good and not so good performance. Furthermore, the student benefits from seeing the task rubric ahead of time as well.
Will students then just be able to mimic the work of others without truly understanding what they are doing?The education field is so full of acronyms and specialized words that it can seem like a confusing alphabet soup! Find out what AYP, IEP, , and many other abbreviations and words mean in this glossary of frequently used terms.
Dogme language teaching is considered to be both a methodology and a movement. Dogme is a communicative approach to language teaching that encourages teaching without published textbooks and focuses instead on conversational communication among learners and teacher. Grading Student Work.
Print Version What Purposes Do Grades Serve? Developing Grading Criteria Making Grading More Efficient Providing Meaningful Feedback to Students Maintaining Grading Consistency in Multi-Sectioned Courses Minimizing Student Complaints about Grading What Purposes Do Grades Serve?
Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Anderson identify the multiple roles that grades . This resource offers suggestions and examples for using authentic materials in adult literacy classrooms. Abstract: This handbook is based on the results of "The Literacy Practices of Adult Learners Study" which focused on the nature and impact of two dimensions of classroom practice in adult basic education (see " Affecting change in .
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In this paper, the writers will discuss the Effect of Using Authentic Materials in teaching, because a number of studies point out that the use of authentic materials is regarded a useful means to motivate learners, arouse their interest.