Biography Unit Ignore the boring post title. Two Days in a Row! I slept until
Papermaking[ edit ] Sizing is used during paper manufacture to reduce the paper's tendency when dry to absorb liquid, with the goal of allowing inks and paints to remain on the surface of the paper and to dry there, rather than be absorbed into the paper. This provides a more consistent, economical, and precise printing, painting, and writing surface.
This is achieved by curbing the paper fibers' tendency to absorb liquids by capillary action. In addition, sizing affects abrasiveness, creasibility, finish, printabilitysmoothnessand surface bond strength and decreases surface porosity and fuzzing. There are three categories of papers with respect to sizing: Waterleaf has low water resistance and includes absorbent papers for blotting.
Slack sized paper is somewhat absorbent and includes newsprintwhile hard sized papers have the highest water resistance, such as coated fine papers and liquid packaging board.
There are two types of sizing: Internal sizing is applied to almost all papers and especially to all those that are machine made, while surface sizing is added for the highest grade bondledgerand writing papers.
Surface sizing[ edit ] Surface sizing solutions consist of mainly modified starches and sometimes other hydrocolloids, such as gelatineor surface sizing agents such as acrylic co-polymers.
Surface sizing agents are amphiphilic molecules, having both hydrophilic water-loving and hydrophobic water-repelling ends. The sizing agent adheres to substrate fibers and forms a film, with the hydrophilic tail facing the fiber and the hydrophobic tail facing outwards, resulting in a smooth finish that tends to be water-repellent.
Sizing improves the surface strength, printability, and water resistance of the paper or material to which it is applied.
In the sizing solution, optical brightening agents OBA may also be added to improve the opacity and whiteness of the paper or material surface. Wet strength Internal sizing chemicals used in papermaking at the wet end are alkyl succinic anhydride ASAalkyl ketene dimer AKD and rosin.
By making the paper web more hydrophobic, the sizing agents influence dewatering and retention of fillers and fibers in the paper sheet. Next to paper quality, internal sizing agents' main effect is on runability of the paper machine.
Preservation[ edit ] While sizing is intended to make paper more suitable for printing, it also makes printing paper less durable and poses a problem for preservation of printed documents.
Sizing with starch was introduced quite early in the history of papermaking. The drying completed, the old papermakers dipped their paper into an animal size that had been made from the parings of hides, which they procured from the parchment-makers.
It was necessary to size that paper so that it would be impervious to ink, but sizing was more needed in writing than in printing papers. Many books of the fifteenth century were printed upon paper that had not been sized, this extra treatment not being essential for a type impression.
The sizing was accomplished by a worker holding a number of sheets by the aid of two wooden sticks, and dipping the paper into the warm gelatinous liquid. The sheets were then pressed to extract the superfluous gelatine. This crude method of sizing the paper was extremely wasteful as many sheets were torn and bruised beyond use.
The sizing room of the early paper mills, was, for this reason, known as the 'slaughter-house'. As Swartzburg writes, "By rosin size had come into use.This is a graphic organizer we are using with our 3rd graders.
It is helping them take biographies and organize the important information to truly understand that person. Can be used for older and younger grades as well! We used the Where in the World section to list important places the person lived or. This literature lesson guides kids towards a deeper understanding of second grade texts through an exploration of character, setting, and plot.
Distribute copies of Outlining Essays (Grades ) Student Reproducible (PDF). Have students complete their outlines in preparation for writing an essay in Lesson 2. LESSON EXTENSION Bonus Challenge: Have students make a graphic organizer to plan their essay.
They may begin by writing their main idea in a circle. This page provides a summary of the key eighth grade curriculum and learning objectives for language arts, math, social studies, and science. Under each is a more detailed description of what children learn in eighth grade subjects, including detailed lesson descriptions of Time4Learning learning activities.
Albert Einstein Biography: A Reading Warm-Up; Albert Einstein, Physicist; Gandhi; The Peanuts Gang: Charles Schulz; Leonardo da Vinci; Fastest Woman in the World: Wilma Rudolph; More Biography Printables for Grades ; Lesson Plans for Grades K Add to your biography lessons with these lesson plans on well-known people that will .
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